a hundred years ago was born a conflict that
would quickly become one of the most complex and controversial in the world A conflict between two very different peoples for the same territory To understand the origins of this conflict let’s take a map of the history of the Jewish people the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will be
explained in the second video We start in 750 BC the Middle East is divided into several small kingdoms and city-states stuck between the Assyrian Empire in the north and Egypt in the south. Among these is the kingdom of Israel whose people venerate many gods
including Yahweh In -722, the capital Samaria falls to the hands of the Assyrian Empire Part of the population then fled to the kingdom of Judah and Jerusalem but they will be followed by the Assyrian army which continues its expansion towards the south The region remains under control for a century until the fall of the capital Nineveh facing the Babylonians Egypt and Babylon will then dispute the territories of the former empire but quickly the Babylonians take over and impose themselves in the region Jerusalem resists this new domination and rebels The Babylonian army then returns to besiege and ransack the city A good part of the population is then moved to the capital In -539, the Achaemenid Persian Empire takes over Babylon The new king authorizes a return on their lands to the formerly defeated peoples A good part of the Judeans return to Jerusalem to build the city and organize the
basics of Jewish culture by building the temple of Solomon and writing the Torah In -334, the young and ambitious king of
Macedonia Alexander the Great share with his army to conquer the known world In a little more than ten years he submits a huge territory and built many cities But exhausted by the conquest
he dies at 32 years old in Babylon No heir in old age The empire is then divided by its generals into different Hellenistic kingdoms Judea passes under the control of the Ptolemaic dynasty A Jewish community then settles in the new city of Alexandria the Torah is translated into Greek Following a war against the dynasty
Seleucid, Judea changes sides Hellenic culture and Jewish culture
become competitors to the point that an altar of the temple is now dedicated to the worship of Zeus A traditionalist Jewish militia organizes itself
and regains control of Jerusalem in -164 The temple is restored and the kingdom of Judea becomes independent A century later, the region is conquered
by the Roman army The Judeans will try two revolts that will be violently muted The first in 66 causes the siege of Jerusalem then the destruction of his temple Only a wall of the enclosure resists
will become the Wailing Wall During the second revolt, the city is razed and a large part of the people are massacred This time Jews are forbidden in Judea Many migrate to the
Galilee but also in the empire Towards the end of the Roman Empire, the
Christianity is the dominant religion and Jerusalem a place of pilgrimage The Jewish community that is then prosperous in the Mediterranean basin is gradually persecuted especially among the Visigoths and the Byzantine Empire In the seventh century, following the birth of Islam begins an Arab conquest In some cases Jews support
this conquest in the hope of better conditions They are then tolerated by the Arabs and only the polytheistic peoples are converted by force In Jerusalem, the dome of the rock is built The city is now a holy city for the three monotheistic religions The Arabs arrive to the Iberian Peninsula, which they call Al-Andalus 5% of the population and is Jewish and their culture begins a golden age While in Europe they are tolerated as people witnesses of times before Jesus Christ but also as sole traders between Catholics and Muslims Which allows the Jews to establish themselves
progressively throughout Western Europe In the eleventh century, the Seljuk Turks, a people from Central Asia begins expansion and reaches Jerusalem They persecute Christians and forbid pilgrims to the city In response, Christians in Europe
organize crusades military and religious expeditions to the Holy City On the way, they massacre Jewish communities that they now see as a deicide people, who killed Jesus Christ In 1347, the Black Death accompanies boats of Genoese traders from Caffa In five years, the disease is spreading
all of Europe and decimates almost half of the population Rumor spreads accusing Jews of poisoning wells They are then persecuted mainly on the Rhine-Rhone axis and then gradually expelled In Spain, the Reconquista ends Catholic kings require Jews to convert or leave A large part chose the departure and will settle along the Mediterranean coast Mainly in the Ottoman Empire where they are welcome Poland-Lithuania also begins a
reception policy and becomes a haven for Jews from Western Europe In the 17th century, there are then more than 300 000, about half of the Jews in the world But everything changed in 1648 with the revolt of the Ukrainian Cossack peasants against the nobility and the Jews to whom they reproach a privileged relation with the power More than 100,000 of them are
massacred or fleeing the area This episode will weaken Poland-Lithuania which is besieged on all sides by the neighboring powers. In 150 years, the country and eradicated and its lands are shared The Jewish community is divided and 900,000 of them are now in the Russian Empire where they are not welcome They quickly become the target of popular attacks called pogroms a Russian term meaning “devastated” Faced with the lack of reaction from the authorities, these attacks are becoming more and more frequent and increase in intensity until they become deadly Jews then emigrate to the USA and
Western Europe where their condition has improved It is in this context that is organized in Basel in 1897 The first Zionist congress that plans to found a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine But the Ottoman Empire is fiercely opposed to the project A few years later, begins the first world war The Ottoman Empire fights alongside Germany Opposite, the allies are in trouble and
seek new supports The Minister of Foreign Affairs
British Arthur Balfour then writes an open letter promising a Jewish national home in Palestine against financial aid from Jewish banks In parallel the British push Arabs to rebellion against the Ottoman Empire by promising them independence in the liberated territories At the end of the war, the Near East is dismantled and shared between the European powers Palestine goes under British mandate This is the beginning of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict